The French Climate and Resilience Law has enacted the introduction of low-emission mobility zones (zones à faibles émissions mobilité, ZFE-m) in all urban areas of more than 150,000 inhabitants by 2025. ZFE-m are undeniably a powerful lever for transforming the vehicle fleet, changing modes of transport, and improving air quality and the health of the most vulnerable populations, which are both social and environmental issues. However, their implementation is controversial due to the economic and social impacts on the most economically constrained users, whether individuals or businesses. The successful implementation of such a system and the generation of a collective dynamic of acceptability will require a refocusing of the debate onto the conditions of implementation and stakeholder consultation.
- 1Santé Publique France study, June 2016. Voir ici
- 2Corporate Average Fuel Economy
- 4As of January 1, 2019, Crit’Air 2 vehicles represented 33% of the fleet in circulation. SDES data. Voir ici
- 5Bill to ban ZFE-m, proposed by a Rassemblement National MP and supported by the association “40 million motorists
- 6On October 12, 2022, the National Assembly’s Sustainable Development Committee presented the conclusions of the “flash” mission on measures to accompany the creation of ZFE-m (co-rapporteurs: Gérard Leseul and Bruno Millienne)